You’ve learnt how to change a diaper, the signs of a diaper rash, the dos and don’ts of bath time and genital hygiene for your newborn.

Now take a moment to understand your baby’s poo and pee. Contrary to what you might think, their bowels and urine are the best and easy way to keep a tab on their general health.

Dads, here is what you need to know.


1. Your baby’s first poo will be a dark, tar-like substance called meconium. This is normal. Poos may be dark green for a few days after.

2. Some babies empty their bowels more frequently than others. Normal frequency ranges from three times a day to as little as three times a week.

3. Changes in frequency, consistency, color and smell can be expected as your baby grows older. Look and smell depends on what your baby eats/drinks.

4. Formula fed babies have firmer poo. Color can vary (grey-yellow, grey-blue, shades of brown) and so can consistency (soft or hard). Changing formulas can change appearance, color and consistency.

5. Breastfed babies have softer sometimes even runny poo (like mustard). Frequency may be low, and its smell may be affected by what they mother eats. Color could be yellow-orange or even green.

6. Once you introduce solids, poo becomes firmer and smellier and it’s normal to look like some food is undigested.

7. Consult your child’s doctor immediately if your baby is constipated, has diarrhoea (fear of infection and dehydration), or has pale poo (fear of jaundice or liver problems).


1. Babies pee many times a day and frequent urination is a good sign (well hydrated).

2. If you notice small ‘crystals’ on the inside of the disposable diaper, it’s normal and has come from the diaper, not your baby.

3. Look at the stream or stain in your baby’s diaper to get an idea of their health. Sometimes an orange or light pink stain is normal as their pee may be reacting to the chemical in the disposable diaper.

4. Consult your child’s doctor immediately if their pee is:

  • Infrequent or dark as it may be a sign of dehydration and not eating enough.
  • Stains are red or brown as this may be a sign of blood in their urine.

Our guide outlines the facts based on research from several online and offline resources. If you are in doubt or worried about your child’s health and/or safety for any reason, consult with a qualified medical care professional or doctor immediately.

Related articles:

Benefits of Reading to Your Child

Talking to Your Baby – The Why & How

Baby's First Year Feeding Guide

The Importance of Make-Believe Play

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